ROR Annex I

Bridge Equipment and Watchkeeping Function I Nautical Watchkeeping Navigation Navigational Equipment

Positioning and Technical Details of Lights and Shapes

ROR Annex I Definition

The term “height above the hull” means height above the uppermost continuous deck.

Vertical positioning and spacing of lights

  • On a power-driven vessel of 20 meters or more in length the masthead lights shall be placed as follows:
    • the forward masthead light, or if only one masthead light is carried, then that light, at a height above the hull of not less than 6 meters, an
    • d, if the breadth of the vessel exceeds 6 meters, then at a height above the hull not less than such breadth, so however that the light need not be placed at a greater height above the hull than 12 meters;
    • when two masthead lights are carried the after one shall be at least 4.5 meters vertically higher than the forward one.
  • The vertical separation of masthead lights of power-driven vessels shall be such that in all normal conditions of trim the after light will be seen over and separate from the forward light at a distance of 1000 meters from the stem when viewed from sea level.
  • The masthead light of a power-driven vessel of 12 meters but less than 20 meters in length shall be placed at a height above the gunwale of not less than 2.5 meters.
  • A power-driven vessel of less than 12 meters in length may carry the uppermost light at a height of less than 2.5 meters above the gunwale. When however a masthead light is carried in addition to sidelights and stern light, then such masthead light shall be carried at least 1 meter higher than the sidelights.
  • One of the two or three masthead lights prescribed for a power-driven vessel when engaged in towing or pushing another vessel shall be placed in the same position as the forward masthead light of a power-driven vessel.
  • In all circumstances the masthead light or lights shall be so placed as to be above and clear of all other lights and obstructions.
  • The sidelights of a power-driven vessel shall be placed at a height above the hull not greater than three quarters of that of the forward masthead light. They shall not be so low as to be interfered with by deck lights.
  • The sidelights, if in a combined lantern and carried on a power-driven vessel of less than 20 metres in length, shall be placed not less than 1 metre below the masthead light.
  • When the Rules prescribe two or three lights to be carried in a vertical line, they shall be spaced as follows:
    • on a vessel of 20 metres in length or more such lights shall be spaced not less than 2 metres apart, and the lowest of these lights shall, except where a towing light is required, not be less than 4 metres above the hull;
    • on a vessel of less than 20 metres in length such lights shall be spaced not less than 1 metre apart and the lowest of these lights shall, except where a towing light is required, not be less than 2 meters above the gunwale;
    • when three lights are carried they shall be equally spaced.
  • The lower of the two all-round lights prescribed for a fishing vessel when engaged in fishing shall be at a height above the sidelights not less than twice the distance between the two vertical lights.
  • The forward anchor light, when two are carried, shall not be less than 4.5 metres above the after one. On a vessel of 50 metres or more in length this forward anchor light shall not be less than 6 metres above the hull.

Horizontal positioning and spacing of lights

  • When two masthead lights are prescribed for a power-driven vessel, the horizontal distance between them shall not be less than one-half of the length of the vessel but need not be more than 100 meters. The forward light shall be placed not more than one-quarter of the length of the vessel from the stem.
  • On a vessel of 20 meters or more in length, the sidelights shall not be placed in front of the forward masthead lights. They shall be placed at or near the side of the vessel.

Details of the location of direction-indicating lights for fishing vessels, dredgers, and vessels engaged in underwater operations

  • The light indicating the direction of the outlying gear from a vessel engaged in fishing as prescribed in Rule 26(c)(ii) shall be placed at a horizontal distance of not less than 2 meters and not more than 6 meters away from the two all-round red and white lights. This light shall be placed not higher than the all-round white light prescribed in Rule 26(c)(i) and not lower than the sidelights.
  • The lights and shapes on a vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations to indicate the obstructed side and/or the side on which it is safe to pass, as prescribed in Rule 27(d)(i) and (ii), shall be placed at the maximum practical horizontal distance, but in no case less than 2 meters, from the lights or shapes prescribed in Rule 27(b)(i) and (ii). In no case shall the upper of these lights or shapes be at a greater height than the lower of the three lights or shapes prescribed in Rule 27(b)(i) and (ii).

Screens for Sidelights

The sidelights shall be fitted with inboard screens painted matt black, and meeting the requirements of Section 9 of this Annex. With a combined lantern, using a single vertical filament and a very narrow division between the green and red sections, external screens need not be fitted.

Shapes

  • Shapes shall be black and of the following sizes:
    • a ball shall have a diameter of not less than 0.6 meters;
    • a cone shall have a base diameter of not less than 0.6 meters and a height equal to its diameter;
    • a cylinder shall have a diameter of at least 0.6 meters and a height of twice its diameter;
    • a diamond shape shall consist of two cones as defined in (ii) above having a common base.
  • The vertical distance between shapes shall be at least 1.5 meters.
  • In a vessel of less than 20 meters in length shapes of lesser dimensions but commensurate with the size of the vessel may be used and the distance apart may be correspondingly reduced.

Colour specification of lights

The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the following standards, which lie within the boundaries of the area of the diagram specified for each colour by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).

The boundaries of the area for each colour are given by indicating the corner coordinates, which are as follows:

(i) White 
x
0.525
0.5
25
0.4520.310 0.443
0.310
y
0.382
0.4400.4400.348 0.283
0.382
(ii) Green   
x 0.0280.0090.3000.203
y 0.3850.7230.5110.356
(iii) Red   
x 0.6800.6600.7350.721
y 0.3200.3200.2650.259
 (iv) Yellow  
x 0.612
0.618
0.5
75
0.5
75
y 0.382
0.382
0.4
25
0.406

Intensity of lights

  • The minimum luminous intensity of lights shall be calculated by using the formula:
    I = 3.43 x 106 x T x D2 x K-D
    where I is luminous intensity in candelas under service conditions, T is threshold factor 2 x 10-7 lux,
    D is the range of visibility (luminous range) of the light in nautical miles, K is atmospheric transmissivity.
    For prescribed lights the value of K shall be 0.8, corresponding to a meteorological visibility of approximately 13 nautical miles.
  • A selection of figures derived from the formula is given in the following table:
Range of visibility (luminous range) of light in nautical milesLuminous intensity of light in candelas for K=0.8
  
DI
  
10.9
24.3
312
427
552
694
NOTE: The maximum luminous intensity of navigation lights should be limited to avoid undue glare.

Horizontal Sectors

  • (i) In the forward direction, sidelights, as fitted on the vessel, must show the minimum required intensities. The intensities must decrease to reach practical cut-off between 1 degree and 3 degrees outside the prescribed sectors.
    (ii) For stern lights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for sidelights, the minimum required intensities shall be maintained over the arc of the horizon up to 5 degrees within the limits of the sectors prescribed in Rule 21. From 5 degrees within the prescribed sectors, the intensity may decrease by 50 percent up to the prescribed limits; it shall decrease steadily to reach practical cut-off at not more than 5 degrees outside the prescribed limits.
  • All-round lights shall be so located as not to be obscured by masts, topmasts or structures within angular sectors of more than 6 degrees, except anchor lights, which need not be placed at an impracticable height above the hull.

Vertical sectors

  • The vertical sectors of electric lights, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels, shall ensure that:
    • at least the required minimum intensity is maintained at all angles from 5 degrees above to 5 degrees below the horizontal;
    • at least 60 percent of the required minimum intensity is maintained from 7.5 degrees above to 7.5 degrees below the horizontal.
  • In the case of sailing vessels, the vertical sectors of electric lights shall ensure that:
    • at least the required minimum intensity is maintained at all angles from 5 degrees above to 5 degrees below the horizontal;
    • at least 50 percent of the required minimum intensity is maintained from 25 degrees above to 25 degrees below the horizontal.
  • In the case of lights other than electric these specifications shall be met as closely as possible.

Intensity of non-electric lights

Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the minimum intensities, as specified in the Table given in Section 8 of this Annex.

Manoeuvring Light

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2(f) of this Annex the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be placed in the same fore and aft vertical plane as the masthead light or lights and, where practicable, at a minimum height of 2 meters vertically above the forward masthead light, provided that it shall be carried not less than 2 meters vertically above or below the after masthead light. On a vessel where only one masthead light is carried the maneuvering light, if fitted, shall be carried where it can best be seen, not less than 2 meters vertically apart from the masthead light.

Approval

The construction of lanterns and shapes and the installation of lanterns on board the vessel shall be to the satisfaction of the appropriate authority of the State where the vessel is registered.