I was called inside together with one more candidate. He gave me 2 questions and asked to me draw the sketches while he started asking questions to the other guy.
Draw the Off load release mechanism of Lifeboat
Draw Flammability diagram
Breaking strength and SWL formula
After completing with the other guy he asked me to come forward and show him my diagrams and asked me to explain. Expect a lot of cross questions in flammability diagram. After that he started with questions from function 2.
Explain Bay plan
Draw the placard for corrosives
Explain the difference classes as per IMDG. Check Here
What do you know about UN number ? How to refer IMDG code ?
The Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), is an international maritime treaty that requires signatory flag states to ensure that flagged vessels meet minimum safety standards for operation, equipment, and construction. It was born after the sinking of the 1914 RMS Titanic.
The SOLAS Convention in its successive forms is generally regarded as the most important of all international treaties concerning the safety of merchant ships.
The SOLAS Convention was adopted on November 1st, 1974 and entered into force on May 25th, 1980
Introduction and History
The first version was adopted in 1914, in response to the Titanic disaste;
the second in 1929;
the third in 1948;
and the fourth in 1960.
The 1960 Convention: which was adopted on 17 June 1960 and entered into force on 26 May 1965.
As a result, a completely new SOLAS Convention was adopted in 1974 which included not only the amendments agreed up until that date but a new amendment procedure – the tacit acceptance procedure – designed to ensure that changes could be made within a specified (and acceptably short) period of time.
As a result the 1974 Convention has been updated and amended on numerous occasions. The Convention in force today is sometimes referred to as SOLAS, 1974, as amended
The need to establish SOLAS 74 convention
SOLAS, 1974, as amended was established to establish a uniform set of regulations which specify the design, construction, survey and management of ships so that they can be globally implemented to improve the safety of life at sea. By which class societies can refer to when setting and maintaining standards.
Main objective of the SOLAS
The main objectives of the SOLAS Convention are to specify minimum standards for the construction, equipment and operation of ships, compatible with their safety.
Flag States are responsible for ensuring that ships under their flag comply with its requirements, and a number of certificates are prescribed in the Convention as proof that this has been done.
Control provisions also allow Contracting Governments to inspect ships of other Contracting States if there are clear grounds for believing that the ship and its equipment do not substantially comply with the requirements of the Convention – this procedure is known as port State control.
The current SOLAS Convention includes Articles setting out general obligations, amendment procedure and so on, followed by an Annex divided into 14 Chapters.
Contents of the SOLAS Convention
Chapter I General Provisions
Chapter II-1 Construction – Subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations
Chapter II-2 Construction – Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction
Chapter III Life saving appliances and arrangements
Chapter IV Radio communications
Chapter V Safety of navigation
Chapter VI Carriage of cargoes 6
Chapter VII – Carriage of Dangerous goods
Chapter VIII – Nuclear Ships
Chapter IX – Management for the safe operation of ships (Formerly known as ISM Code)
Chapter X – Safety measures for high speed craft
Chapter XI – Special features to enhance maritime safety
Chapter XI-II – Special Measures to enhance maritime security
Chapter XII – Additional safety measures for bulk carriers
Chapter XIII – Verification of compliance
Chapter XIV – Safety measures for ships operating in polar water
Annex 1: Records of equipment
Annex 2: Forms of attachments
Chapter I- General Provisions
Chapter I of SOLAS Convention includes regulations concerning the survey of the various types of ships and the issuing of documents signifying that the ship meets the requirements of the Convention.
The Chapter also includes provisions for the control of ships in ports of other Contracting Governments.
Chapter II-1- Construction – Subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations
The subdivision of passenger ships into watertight compartments must be such that after assumed damage to the ship’s hull the vessel will remain afloat and stable. Requirements for watertight integrity and bilge pumping arrangements for passenger ships are also laid down as well as stability requirements for both passenger and cargo ships.
The degree of subdivision – measured by the maximum permissible distance between two adjacent bulkheads – varies with ship’s length and the service in which it is engaged. The highest degree of subdivision applies to passenger ships.
Requirements covering machinery and electrical installations are designed to ensure that services which are essential for the safety of the ship, passengers and crew are maintained under various emergency conditions.
“Goal-based standards” for oil tankers and bulk carriers were adopted in 2010, requiring new ships to be designed and constructed for a specified design life and to be safe and environmentally friendly, in intact and specified damage conditions, throughout their life.
Under this regulation, ships should have adequate strength, integrity and stability to minimise the risk of loss of the ship or pollution to the marine environment due to structural failure, including collapse, resulting in flooding or loss of watertight integrity.
Chapter II-2- Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction
This SOLAS Convention chapter includes detailed fire safety provisions for all ships and specific measures for passenger ships, cargo ships and tankers. They include the following principles:
division of the ship into main and vertical zones by thermal and structural boundaries;
separation of accommodation spaces from the remainder of the ship by thermal and structural boundaries;
restricted use of combustible materials; detection of any fire in the zone of origin;
containment and extinction of any fire in the space of origin; protection of the means of escape or of access for fire- fighting purposes; ready availability of fire-extinguishing appliances;
minimisation of the possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapour.
Chapter III- Life-saving Appliances and Arrangements
This SOLAS Chapter includes requirements for life-saving appliances and arrangements, including requirements for life boats, rescue boats and life jackets according to type of ship. The International Life-Saving Appliance (LSA) Code gives specific technical requirements for LSAs and is mandatory under Regulation 34, which states that all life-saving appliances and arrangements shall comply with the applicable requirements of the LSA Code.
Chapter IV– Radiocommunications
This SOLAS Chapter incorporates the GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System).
All passenger ships and all cargo ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards on international voyages are required to carry equipment designed to improve the chances of rescue following an accident, including satellite Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) and Search and Rescue Transponders (SARTs) for the location of the ship or survival craft.
Regulations in Chapter IV cover undertakings by contracting governments to provide radiocommunication services as well as ship requirements for carriage of radiocommunications equipment. The Chapter is closely linked to the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union.
Chapter V- Safety of navigation
Chapter V of SOLAS Convention identifies certain navigation safety services which should be provided by Contracting Governments and sets forth provisions of an operational nature applicable in general to all ships on all voyages. This is in contrast to the Convention as a whole, which only applies to certain classes of ship engaged on international voyages.
The subjects covered under Chapter V of SOLAS include
the maintenance of meteorological services for ships;
the ice patrol service; routeing of ships; and the maintenance of search and rescue services,
a general obligation for masters to proceed to the assistance of those in distress and for Contracting Governments to ensure that all ships shall be sufficiently and efficiently manned from a safety point of view.
The chapter makes mandatory the carriage of Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs) and Automatic Ship Identification Systems (AIS) for certain ships.
Chapter VI- Carriage of Cargoes
Chapter VI of SOLAS Convention covers all types of cargo (except liquids and gases in bulk) “which, owing to their particular hazards to ships or persons on board, may require special precautions”.
The regulations include requirements for stowage and securing of cargo or cargo units (such as containers).
The Chapter requires cargo ships carrying grain to comply with the International Grain Code.
Chapter VII- Carriage of dangerous goods
The regulations are contained in three parts:
Part A-Carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form– includes provisions for the classification, packing, marking, labelling and placarding, documentation and stowage of dangerous goods.
Part A-1-Carriage of dangerous goods in solid form in bulk– includes the documentation, stowage and segregation requirements for these goods and requires reporting of incidents involving such goods.
Part B covers Construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous liquid chemicals in bulk and requires chemical tankers built after 1 July 1986 to comply with the International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC Code). 14
Part C covers Construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk and gas carriers constructed after 1 July 1986 to comply with the requirements of the International Gas Carrier Code (IGC Code).
Part D includes special requirements for the carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes on board ships and requires ships carrying such products to comply with the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive Wastes on Board Ships (INF Code).
Chapter VII of SOLAS Convention requires carriage of dangerous goods to be in compliance with the relevant provisions of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code).
Gives basic requirements for nuclear-powered ships and is particularly concerned with radiation hazards. It refers to detailed and comprehensive Code of Safety for Nuclear Merchant Ships which was adopted by the IMO Assembly in 1981.
Chapter IX- Management for the Safe Operation of Ships
This chapter makes mandatory the International Safety Management (ISM) Code, which requires a safety management system to be established by the shipowner or any person who has assumed responsibility for the ship (the “Company”).
Chapter X – Safety Measures for High-Speed Craft
Chapter X of SOLAS makes mandatory the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft (HSC Code).
Chapter XI-1 – Special Measures to Enhance Maritime Safety
This SOLAS Chapter clarifies requirements relating to authorisation of recognised organisations (responsible for carrying out surveys and inspections on Administrations’ behalves); enhanced surveys; ship identification number scheme; and port State control on operational requirements.
Chapter XI-2- Special Measures to Enhance Maritime Security
The Chapter was adopted in December 2002 and entered into force on 1 July 2004. Regulation XI-2/3 of the new chapter enshrines the International Ship and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code). Part A of the Code is mandatory and Part B contains guidance as to how best to comply with the mandatory requirements.
Regulation XI-2/3 of the chapter shades light on the International Ship and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code). Part A of the Code is mandatory and part B contains guidance as to how best to comply with the mandatory requirements.
Regulation XI-2/8 confirms the role of the Master in exercising his professional judgement over decisions necessary to maintain the security of the ship. It says he shall not be constrained by the Company, the charterer or any other person in this respect.
Regulation XI-2/5 requires all ships to be provided with a ship security alert system.
Regulation XI-2/6 covers requirements for port facilities, providing among other things for Contracting Governments to ensure that port facility security assessments are carried out and that port facility security plans are developed, implemented and reviewed in accordance with the ISPS Code.
Other regulations in this chapter cover the provision of information to IMO, the control of ships in port, (including measures such as the delay, detention, restriction of operations including movement within the port, or expulsion of a ship from port), and the specific responsibility of Companies.
Chapter XII- Additional safety measures for bulk carriers
This Chapter includes structural requirements for bulk carriers over 150 metres in length.
Chapter XIII- Verification of Compliance
Chapter XIII makes mandatory from 1 January 2016 the IMO Member State Audit Scheme.
Chapter XIV- Safety measures for ships operating in polar waters
Chapter XIV of SOLAS makes it mandatory, from 1 January 2017, the Introduction and part I-A of the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (the Polar Code).
Major Codes under SOLAS Convention
International code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk (IBC Code)
International code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk (IGC Code)
List the certificates to be carried by cargo ships All Ships 1. Certificate of Registry 2. International Tonnage Certificate 3. International Loadline Certificate 4. Intact stability booklet 5. Minimum safe manning document 6. Certificate of Masters, Officers and ratings 7. Deratting Certificate 8. International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate 9. Oil Record Book 28 29. List the certificates to be carried by cargo ships In Addition Cargo Ships must carry: 1. Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate 2. Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate 3. Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate 4. Document of compliance with the special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods. 5. Dangerous goods manifest or stowage plan 6. Document of authorization for carriage of grain. 7. Certificate of Insurance 29
The 1974 Convention has been amended many times to keep it up to date. See History of SOLAS.
Amendments adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) are listed in MSC Resolutions.
Let us know how informative this article was, in comments below.
Area covered by charts (i.e. bottom margin and top margin in lat and long)
ADMIRALTY Port Approach Guides
Port Approach Guides are single, port-scale charts that contain a wide range of planning information for some of the world’s busiest approaches. Taken from existing ADMIRALTY charts and publications, this information can help to simplify a number of passage planning tasks and support Master Pilot Exchange (MPX).
Each Port Approach Guide displays a range of planning information for a specific approach. This additional planning information may include contact details and harbor regulations, Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) information, principal lights and landmarks, specific warnings, tide and climate information, anchorages and prohibited areas, dangerous cargo, pilotage, berth information, and port services. Clearly displayed on one chart, this information can help to save bridge officer’s time during passage planning and Master Pilot Exchange (MPX). It can also help to make the planning of port navigation quicker and easier.
Key features of Port Approach Guides include:
Planning information for individual ports including principal lights and landmarks, pilotage, and port-specific warnings. Displayed on one chart, this information can help users to simplify the planning of port entry and exit.
International Code of Signals (ICS) flags and QR codes to help bridge officers quickly identify warnings and current notices for specific ports, increasing situational awareness and supporting safe navigation.
Chart Catalogue (NP 131):
This publication has 10 parts:
The UK products and services;
Miscellaneous products and services;
Procedure for correction this volume;
Admiralty Sailing Directions
This Admiralty nautical publication is published in 72 volumes covering the whole ocean area. These volumes contain:
General information and local knowledge of the area;
Navigational hazards regarding port entry;
Coast line views and chart information ;
Admiralty Tide Table
Published in seven volumes, covering the whole Ocean Area. It contains:
Daily prediction for the time and height of high water and low water;
Selection of standard ports.
Correction to standard ports information enabling daily prediction for secondary ports.
Graphs enabling an estimation of tide height at time in between high water and low water.
Also include some tidal stream prediction.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals
ALRS comes in SIX Volumes.
Admiralty List of Lights
Characteristics of all navigation lights and beacons
Position of the light
Name of the light
Height of the light from the charted datum.
Range and flashing characteristic of the light.
Ice information –maximum ice limit
Mean temperature guide
Prevailing wind rose
Recommended track and distances
Load line limits zone for the time of year
Ocean currents, predominant current direction ad speed in knots
Dew point and mean sea temperature
Percentage frequency of beau fort wind force of 7 and over, predominant TRS
Area of low pressure and high pressure
The scale of the chart
Iceberg limit and pack ice limit
Load line for Mediterranian sea, Suez channel, and black sea
Ocean Current Atlas
Ocean current may be considered more constant then tidal streams and many flows throughout the year with only small changes in direction and rate. Others may suffer seasonal changes when monsoon wind changes. The main example of these changes is the North Indian Ocean area at the change of southwest and northwest monsoon.
Tidal Stream Atlas/es
Diagrams showing major tidal streams of NW Europe.
Direction and rate of tidal streams.
Mean neap and spring tidal rates.
Horizontal water movement.
Weekly Notices to Mariners
Divided in SIX Sections:
Section I: Index to Section II together with Explanatory note
Section II: Notice for correction to charts .these includes all notices affecting navigational charts and listed consecutively from the onset of the year. The section also includes temporary (T) and preliminary (P) notices to the week. The list weekly notice of each month will also list the temporary and preliminary notices which are remaining current. Any new addition of the chart publication issued is listed in this section. Typical examples include- sailing direction or list of lights etc. latest edition of publications are listed at the end of March, June September, and December. Updates to standard navigation charts
Section III: Navigational warnings are reprinted in this section. All warnings which are in force are included in the first weekly notice of each year. Additionally, all long-range warnings issued during the week are included in this section and listed on a monthly basis. List of NAVAREAs, HYDROLANT, and HYDROPAC messages. Re-print of radio navigational warnings
Section IV: All correction affecting admiralty sailing direction which is published that week. A cumulative list of that correction in force is also published on a monthly basis. Amendment to admiralty sailing direction.
Section V: All correction required for the admiralty list of lights and fog signals. Mariners are advised that these corrections may not be coincident with any chart correcting information. Amendment to admiralty list of light and fog-signals.
Section VI: Correction to Admiralty List of Radio Signals are contained in this last section. Amendment to the list of Radio Signals.
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners (NP 247- 1 & 2)
T’s&P’s in force as of January 1st of every year
Chapter 1: Admiralty Tide Tables
Chapter 2: Suppliers of admiralty chars and publications
Chapter 3: Safety and British merchant ships in tension, crisis, conflict of war
Chapter 4: Distress and rescue at sea vessels and aircraft
Distress and safety communications.
Statutory duties of master of a vessel.
Vessel in distress.
Aircraft in distress
Chapter 5: Firing practice and exercise area
Chapter 6: Former marine danger area, cleared routes and instructions regarding explosives picked up at sea.
Chapter 7: UK and Russian federation agreement on the prevention of incidents at sea beyond territorial waters.
Chapter 8: Information concerning submarine
Light shown when on the surface.
Sunken submarine procedure.
Chapter 9: Hydrographic information
Chapter 10: Minelaying and mine countermeasure exercises
Chapter 12 National claims to maritime jurisdiction
Chapter13 Worldwide navigational warning service and world meteorological
Chapter 15: Under keel clearance allowance
Chapter 16: Protection of historic, dangerous, and military wreck site
Chapter 17: Traffic separation schemes
Chapter 17A: UK automatic ship identification and reporting system and automatic ship identification system
Chapter 18: Carriage of nautical charts and publication-regulation (International code of signals, The mariner handbook, MSN, MGN, and MIN, Annual summary notice to mariners, list of radio signals, list of lights, Sailing directions, nautical almanac, Tide table, tidal stream atlases.)
Chapter 19: Satellite navigation system position and charts accuracy
Chapter 20: Canadian charts and nautical publication regulation
Chapter 22: US Navigation safety regulations
Chapter 23: High-speed craft
Chapter 24: Submarine cable and pipeline
Chapter 25: Electronic navigational charts (Limitation of ENC )
Cumulative List of Admiralty Notices to Mariners (NP 234 A/B)
CNTMs (NP234 A/B) are issued in January and July of each year. These contain the list of all correction which are been issued since last three years and also the list of latest nautical publication. CNTMs contain:
Date of the latest edition of each admiralty charts
Numerical list of all admiralty notice to mariner numbers affecting a particular chart during the past two and half years.
Australian and New Zealand charts which are republished within the admiralty series receive the same treatment.
Merchant Shipping Notices (MSN)
white in color.
used only to convey mandatory information that must be complied with under UK legislation.
related to statuary instruments and contain technical detail of regulation
numbered in sequence
continuous the sequence in use prior 11th march 1997 but with prefix MSN
Mariner’s Guidance Note (MGN)
blue in color;
provide guidance and advice to relevant parties in order to improve the safety of shipping and life at sea and pollution prevention;
numbered in sequence from M G N – 1
Mariner’s Information Notes (MINs)
are green in color;
provide information for a more limited audience/ readers e.g.:- training establishments, equipment manufacturers, or which will be used for a short period of time;
has a fixed cancellation date which usually 12 months after publication.
are numbered in sequence MIN– 1 and so on
IMO Routeing Guide
The purpose of ship routing is to improve the safety of navigation in the converging area and in area where the density of traffic is great or where freedom of movement of shipping is inhibited by restricted sea room, the existence of obstruction to navigation, limited depth, or unfavorable meteorological conditions and information on traffic separation scheme (Adopted or Non-adopted). The contents are:
Traffic Separation Scheme;
Separation zone or line;
Inshore Traffic Zone;
Ocean Passage of the World
Ocean routes to port to port around the world it has two parts and 10 chapters.
Part- 1: Chapters
Planning a passage
North Atlantic ocean
South Atlantic ocean
Caribbean sea and gulf of México
The Mediterranean Sea.
The Indian Ocean.
The Pacific Ocean and sea boarding it.
Introductory remarks and the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean sea sailing rules.
The Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and eastern archipelago sailing routes.
Pacific ocean sailing rules
Table, gazetteer, and index
Table A– Beaufort wind scale
Table B– seasonal wind/monsoon table-west Pacific and the Indian Ocean.
Table C- tropical storm table.
Index to general subjects and routes.
Mariner’s Handbook (NP 100)
Mariner’s Handbook has Nine chapters
Charts books, a system of name, International Hydrographic Organization, and the International Maritime Organization.
The use of charts and other navigational aids
Operational information and regulation.
The sea (tide, tidal stream, ocean currents, and waves.
Ice (sea ice, icebergs, ice glossary)
Operation in the polar region and where ice is prevalent
Observing and reporting
IALA maritime buoyage system
Annexes, glossary, and index
Altitude correction table for sun, stars, and planets.
Additional refraction correction for non-standard condition
Title page, preface, etc
Phases of the moon
Planet notes and diagram
Daily pages: ephemerides of sun, moon, Aries, and planets, sunrise, sunset, twilight, moonrise, moonset, etc
Stars: SHA and Declination of 173stars in order of SHA accuracy 0.1
Polaris table (pole star)
Sight reduction procedure: direct computation
Concise sight reduction table
Form for use with concise sight reduction table
Conversion table of arc to time
Table of increments and correction for sun, planets, Aries, and Moon
Table for interpolating sunrise, sunset, twilights, moonrise, moonset, moon’s meridian passage
Medical Emergency- if Chief Officer and Master injured whom to contact? doesn’t want CIRM but goes deep into GMDSS;
Explain about Foam Extinguisher and how to do its inspections;
Tests to be done on SCBA.
Date - 11 Aug 2020 | External- Capt Oak | Internal- Capt. Ajit Toponov
Red buoy sighted 2 points on stbd bow, action?
Heading south, west cardinal buoy sighted 2 point on port bow, action?
While taking action for 2nd case , u got grounded , actions , lights , emcy signals transmitted.
Characteristics of a Buoy
RV- one vessel approaching from 2 Point Port Bow, not sighted on radar, action?
How will the target vessel know that you have taken some actions?
What is the range of fog signals?
NUC- lights, shapes, dimensions and colour of shape.
Why do you take barometer pressure during every watch?
Errors of Barometer? Where will you get Index Error? Do we calibrate it? What is the interval?
Your Height of eye is 30 mtr, Pressure is 1001mb, what to log in log book?
Different types of log books , what all entries made in made by Second Mates in log books.
What is Reserve Source and Emergency Source, duration of use of both sources. Instrument used on Emcy sources.
Compass error, gyro error- 3 degree high, Course 125, what will you steer?
Your vessel is dragging anchor, how will you come to know visually? without Radar or sight? Told chain will take long stay – short stay, load on chain. Asked change of stay is continuously or once.
Asked from where are you referring your notes? What is the authenticity of it?
How to set NAVTEX
Some questions on ECDIS
Fishing Vessel shooting nets , how will you identify by day;
Name of the cyclone which hit Mumbai in Month of June.
If you were at anchorage , what action will you take.
What all ship have you done?
What is P&A Manual? when to refer, what all information in it, different types of gas instruments used on chemical tankers.
Relationship between LEL, volume. For personal gas meter how much LEL for Hydrocarbon.
As OOW for Cargo Watch, What all checks you will carry out?
What will lift first PV valve or PV breaker , why?
Different types of containers?
What is subsidiary risk, EMS, MFAG.
How will you check hold temperature? At how many levels.
Hazards of Coal
You see a damage cargo getting loading by crane , what action you will take, loader still not stopping it, actions. I told i will inform E/R and cut the power of crane. Now it is loaded on your ship , what you will do? Told, will inform master, C/O, make Stevedore Damage Report, take photos , inform surveyor , loading master. Still loading Master not agreeing that it was loaded in damage condition than what will you do?
Some hazards of cargoes
Bulk cargo distinguish in how many categories?
Date - 11 Aug 2020 | External- Capt Oak | Internal- Capt. Ajit Toponov
Port lateral mark
West Cardinal Mark
ROR Rules 6 & 19
Various situation in RV
Type of AIS, Requirement,
Define Flag B, G
How will you identify Pilot Vessel in RV
How to identify Sailing vessel day and night
Various Gyro Errors
What is INDSAR?
What do you mean by Participating in INDSAR
Aground vessel lights
CBD Vessel, Day Signal and Night Lights
Dimensions of Day Signal
Date - 11 Aug 2020 | External- Capt Oak | Internal- Capt. Harinder/ Capt. Ajit Toponov
Heading south, west cardinal buoy on 2 pts port bow, action? Explain all its characteristics
Flag B, G
How will you identify pilot vessel in RV
How to identify CBD vessel day and night
Gyro error 2 deg high, you want to steer 125 T what’s your gyro heading.
ETA calculation. Westerly course what you will do.
Draw diagram of Dec 10N lat 20S name all the parameters.
Where will the body rise on the diagram and how will you denote it.
Radar shows 12 blips of beacon your action.
What is INDSAR, its reporting and area limits
Day Light Signal Dimensions
Distance between day signals.
Distance of additional fishing lights as per annex 2.
Many cross questions, to confuse, rapid questions, doesn’t wait for full answers.
Have you used star finder? How to use it?
Tell me the constellations of stars you know. Name the stars.
Pilots come aboard ship to assist the crew during the most critical and potentially hazardous phases of a voyage. Qualified pilots possess particular local knowledge and have the necessary ship-handling skills to assist the safe arrival and departure of vessels. Normally, pilots board and disembark using a traditional rope ladder from and to a pilot boat. However, this can be a very dangerous procedure if those involved do not adhere to International Maritime Organisation (IMO) standards or fail to practise acceptable seamanship skills. A number of pilots have died as a result of accidents while boarding/disembarking from ships, and many more have been seriously injured.
Ensuring the safe boarding of Pilots, the IMO Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation 23) sets out the principal requirements for the rigging of pilot ladders.
There is further detailed technical specification for pilot ladders in IMO Resolution A.1045(27). Shipping companies have a legal obligation to provide a conforming ladder and ship-borne fittings. If seafarers are uncertain about any of the requirements, they should always ask their supervising officer for advice.
Ships constructed after the 1 July 2012 must comply with the new equipment and arrangement requirements of SOLAS Regulation V/23. Equipment and arrangements replaced on or after the 1 July 2012 on existing ships, shall, so far is reasonable and practicable, comply with the requirements of this regulation.
These requirements include the securing of an accommodation ladder to the ship’s side, when used in conjunction with the pilot ladder, and the prohibited use of mechanical pilot hoists.
According to SOLAS Chapter V Regulation 23, Pilot transfer arrangements applies to all ships engaged on voyages in the course of which pilots may be employed Equipment and arrangements for pilot transfer which are installed on or after 1 July 2012 shall comply with the requirements of SOLAS Chp V/ Reg 23 and due regard shall be paid to the standards adopted by the Organisation. Except as provided otherwise, equipment and arrangements for pilot transfer which are provided on ships before 1 July 2012 shall at least comply with the requirements of regulation 17 or 23. as applicable, of the Convention in force prior to that date. and due regard shall be paid to the standards adopted by the Organisation prior to that date. Equipment and arrangements installed on or after 1 July 2012, which are a replacement of equipment and arrangements provided on ships before 1 July 2012, comply with the requirements of Regulation 23 of Chapter V.
IMO Resolution A.1045(27) (Interpretation of SOLAS Chp V, Reg 23)
A pilot ladder should be certified by the manufacturer as complying with this section or with the requirements of an international standard acceptable to the IMO.
Construction of Pilot Ladder
The steps of the pilot ladders should comply with the following requirements:
shall be made of hardwood (Ash, Oak, Beech, Teak, and other hardwood having equivalent properties), they should be made in one piece, free of knots;
if made of material other than hardwood, they should be of equivalent strength, stiffness and durability to the satisfaction of the Administration;
the four lowest steps may be of rubber of sufficient strength and stiffness or other material to the satisfaction of the Administration;
they should have an efficient non-slip surface;
they should be not less than 400 mm between the side ropes, 115 mm wide and 25 mm in depth, excluding any non-slip device or grooving;
they should be equally spaced not less than 310 mm or more than 350 mm apart; and
they should be secured in such a manner that each will remain horizontal. The Pilot Ladder should not have more than two replacement steps which are secured in position by a method different from that used in the original construction of the ladder, and
any steps so secured should be replaced as soon as reasonably practicable by steps secured in position by the method used in the original construction of the pilot ladder.
When any replacement step is secured to the side ropes of the pilot ladder by means of grooves in the sides of the step, such grooves should be in the longer sides of the step.
Pilot ladders with more than five steps should have spreader steps not less than 1.8 m long provided at such intervals as will prevent the pilot ladder from twisting.
The lowest spreader step should be the fifth step from the bottom of the ladder and the interval between any spreader step and the next should not exceed nine steps.
When a retrieval line is considered necessary to ensure the safe rigging of a pilot ladder, the line should be fastened at or above the last spreader step and should lead forward. The retrieval line should not hinder the pilot nor obstruct the safe approach of the pilot boat.
A permanent marking should be provided at regular intervals (e.g. 1 m) throughout the length of the ladder consistent with ladder design, use and maintenance in order to facilitate the rigging of the ladder to the required height.
Accomodation Ladders used in conjunction with Pilot Ladders
When Accommodation Ladders used in conjunction with Pilot Ladders, the arrangements shall vary according to the type of ships may be accepted, provided that they are equally safe.
The length of the accommodation ladder should be sufficient to ensure that its angle of slope does not exceed 45°. In ships with large draft ranges, several pilot ladder hanging positions may be provided, resulting in lesser angles of slope.
The accommodation ladder should be at least 600 mm in width.
The lower platform of the accommodation ladder should be in a horizontal position and secured to the ship’s side when in use. The lower platform should be a minimum of 5 m above sea level.
Intermediate platforms, if fitted, should be self-levelling. Treads and steps of the accommodation ladder should be so designed that an adequate and safe foothold is given at the operative angles.
The ladder and platform should be equipped on both sides with stanchions and rigid handrails, but if hand-ropes are used they should be tight and properly secured. The vertical space between the handrail or hand-rope and the stringers of the ladder should be securely fenced.
The pilot ladder should be rigged immediately adjacent to the lower platform of the accommodation ladder and the upper end should extend at least 2 m above the lower platform.
The horizontal distance between the pilot ladder and the lower platform should be between 0.1 and 0.2 m.
If a trapdoor is fitted in the lower platform to allow access from and to the pilot ladder, the aperture should not be less than 750 mm x 750 mm. The trapdoor should open upwards and be secured either flat on the embarkation platform or against the rails at the aft end or outboard side of the platform and should not form part of the handholds. In this case the after part of the lower platform should also be fenced with stanchions and rigid handrails, and the pilot ladder should extend above the lower platform to the height of the handrail and remain in alignment with and against the ship’s side.
Accommodation ladders, together with any suspension arrangements or attachments fitted and intended for use as Combination Ladder should comply SOLAS Regulation II-1/3-9 and should be to the satisfaction of the Administration
Mechanical Pilot Hoists
The use of mechanical pilot hoists is prohibited by SOLAS Regulation V/23
Access to Deck
Proper means should be provided to ensure safe, convenient and unobstructed passage for any person embarking on, or disembarking from, the ship between the head of the pilot ladder, or of any accommodation ladder, and the ship’s deck; such access should be gained directly by a platform securely guarded by handrails.
Passage for access to deck shall:
a gateway in the rails or bulwark, adequate handholds should be provided at the point of embarking on or disembarking from the ship on each side which should be not less than 0.7 m or more than 0.8 m apart.
have each handhold rigidly secured to the ship’s structure at or near its base and also at a higher point, not less than 32 mm in diameter and extend not less than 1.2 m above the top of the bulwarks. Stanchions or handrails should not be attached to the bulwark ladder;
have a bulwark ladder securely attached to the ship to prevent overturning. Two handhold stanchions should be fitted at the point of embarking on or disembarking from the ship on each side which should be not less than 0.7 m or more than 0.8 m apart.
The horizontal distance between the handrails and/or the handgrips should be not less than 0.7 m or more than 0.8 m apart.
Safe approach of the Pilot Boat
Rubbing bands or other constructional features might prevent the safe approach of a pilot boat, these should be cut back to provide at least 6 metres of unobstructed ship’s side.
Specialised offshore ships less than 90 m or other similar ships less than 90 m for which a 6 m gap in the rubbing bands would not be practicable, as determined by the Administration, do not have to comply with this requirement.
In this case, other appropriate measures should be taken to ensure that persons are able to embark and disembark safely.
Installation of Pilot Ladder Winch Reels
Point of Access to Pilot Ladder Winch Reels
When a pilot ladder winch reel is provided for pilot transfer arrangements, it should be situated at a position which will ensure persons embarking on, or disembarking from, the ship between the pilot ladder and the point of access to the ship, have safe, convenient and unobstructed access to or egress from the ship. The point of access to or egress from the ship may be by a ship’s side opening, an accommodation ladder when a combination arrangement is provided, or a single section of pilot ladder. The access position and adjacent area should be clear of obstructions, including the pilot ladder winch reel, for distances as follows:
a distance of 915 mm in width measured longitudinally;
a distance of 915 mm in depth, measured from the ship’s side plating inwards;
a distance of 2,200 mm in height, measured vertically from the access deck.
Physical positioning of pilot ladder winch reels
Pilot ladder winch reels are generally fitted on the ship’s upper (main) deck or at a ship’s side opening which may include side doors, gangway locations or bunkering points. Winch reels fitted on the upper deck may result in very long pilot ladders. The winch reels shall be:
situated at a location on the upper deck from which the pilot ladder is able to be suspended vertically, in a straight line, to a point adjacent to the ship side opening access point or the lower platform of the accommodation ladder;
situated at a location which provides a safe, convenient and unobstructed passage for any person embarking on, or disembarking from, the ship between the pilot ladder and the place of access on the ship;
situated so that safe and convenient access is provided between the pilot ladder and the ship’s side opening by means of a platform which should extend outboard from the ship’s side for a minimum distance of 750 mm, with a longitudinal length of a minimum of 750 mm. The platform should be securely guarded by handrails;
safely secure the pilot ladder and manropes to the ship’s side at a point on the ships side at a distance of 1,500 mm above the platform access point to the ship side opening or the lower platform of the accommodation ladder;
if a combination arrangement is provided, then have the accommodation ladder secured to the ship’s side at or close to the lower platform so as to ensure that the accommodation ladder rests firmly against the ship’s side.
Pilot ladder winch reels fitted inside a ship’s side opening should:
be situated at a position which provides a safe, convenient and unobstructed passage for any person embarking on, or disembarking from, the ship between the pilot ladder and the place of access on the ship;
be situated at a position which provides an unobstructed clear area with a minimum length of 915 mm and minimum width of 915 mm and minimum vertical height of 2,200 mm; and
if situated at a position which necessitates a section of the pilot ladder to be partially secured in a horizontal position on the deck so as to provide a clear access as described above, then allowance should be made so that this section of the pilot ladder may be covered with a rigid platform for a minimum distance of 915 mm measured horizontally from the ship’s side inwards.
Securing of the Pilot Ladder
Where the pilot ladder is stowed on a pilot ladder winch reel which is located either within the ship’s side opening or on the upper deck:
the pilot ladder winch reel should not be relied upon to support the pilot ladder when the pilot ladder is in use;
the pilot ladder should be secured to a strong point, independent of the pilot ladder winch reel;
the pilot ladder should be secured at deck level inside the ship side opening or, when located on the ship’s upper deck, at a distance of not less than 915 mm measured horizontally from the ship’s side inwards.
Mechanical securing of Pilot Ladder Winch Reel
All pilot ladder winch reels should have means of preventing the winch reel from being accidentally operated as a result of mechanical failure or human error.
Pilot ladder winch reels may be manually operated or, alternatively, powered by either electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic means.
Manually operated pilot ladder winch reels should be provided with a brake or other suitable arrangements to control the lowering of the pilot ladder and to lock the winch reel in position once the pilot ladder is lowered into position.
Electrical, hydraulic or pneumatically driven pilot ladder winch reels should be fitted with safety devices which are capable of cutting off the power supply to the winch reel and thus locking the winch reel in position.
Powered winch reels should have clearly marked control levers or handles which may be locked in a neutral position.
A mechanical device or locking pin should also be utilised to lock powered winch reels.
Solas Chapter V, Regulation 23- Pilot Transfer Arrangements
IMO Resolution A.1045 (27)- Recommendation on Pilot Transfer Arrangements
The IMDG Code regulates the transport of dangerous goods by sea in order to prevent injury to persons or damage to ships and their cargoes. Dangerous Goods means the substances, materials and articles in packaged form covered by IMDG Code.
Transport of marine pollutants is primarily regulated to prevent harm to the marine environment. The objective of the IMDG Code is to enhance the safe transport of dangerous goods while facilitating the free unrestricted movement of such goods.
The IMDG Code contains details of all the numerous dangerous cargoes offered for carriage by sea and includes solid, liquid and gaseous substances. Explosive, flammable, oxidising and radioactive substances are also included and recommended means of their containment or packing are listed, as is all manner of other information relating to the product. Future updating of the Code, on two-year basis, are foreseen in order to take into account technological developments.
The IMDG Code applies to all ships carrying dangerous goods in packaged form, which are covered by the code.
The objective of IMDG Code is to:
Protect human life.
Prevent marine pollution
Facilitate the free movement of dangerous goods.
to give an uniform approach for the handling and for the safe transport of dangerous goods by sea.
to guide the technical information for all dangerous cargoes in order for them to be carried by ship safely without causing damage to the environment.
The IMDG Code also covers:
The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code was adopted in 1965 as per the SOLAS (Safety for Life at Sea) Convention of 1960. This code was formed to prevent all types of pollution at sea.
IMDG Code or International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code was accepted by MSC (Maritime Safety Committee) as an international guideline to the safe transportation or shipment of dangerous goods or hazardous materials by water on vessel. The Code is intended to protect crew members and to prevent marine pollution in the safe transportation of hazardous materials by vessel. It is recommended to governments for adoption or for use as the basis for national regulations’s mandatory in conjunction with the obligations of the members of united nation government under the SOLAS Code and the MARPOL 73/78. It is intended for use not only by the mariner but also by all those involved in industries and services connected with shipping.
IMDG Code contains advice on terminology, packaging, labelling, placarding, markings, stowage, segregation, handling, and emergency response. The HNS Convention covers hazardous and noxious substances that are included in the IMDG code.
The code is updated and maintained by the CCC (formerly DSC) Sub-Committee of the IMO every 2 years.
The IMDG Code’s latest 2018 Edition (inc. Amendment 39-18) comes into force on 1 January 2020 for two years and may be applied voluntarily as from 1 January 2019.
The IMDG Code Supplement, 2018 Edition renders obsolete the previous 2014 edition.
Contents of IMDG Code
Part 1 General Provisions, definitions and training Application, Definitions, Training, Security, general provisions for radioactive material
Part 2 Classification: The IMDG goods classes, 1 to 9, explained
Part 3 Dangerous goods list – contained in Volume 2
Part 4 Packing and tank provisions
Part 5 Consignment procedures
Part 6 Construction and testing of packages, IBCs, portable tanks, MECGs and road tank vehicles
Part 7 Provision concerning transport operations
3.2 Dangerous goods list
3.3 Special provisions applicable to certain substances, materials or articles
3.4 Dangerous goods packed in limited quantities
3.5 Dangerous goods packed in excepted quantities
Appendix A List of generic and N.O.S. proper shipping terms
Appendix B Glossary of terms
Classification of Dangerous Goods
Class 1: Explosives; e.g. Nitroglycerine, Cyclonite (RDX), Ammunition
Division 1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard;
Division 1.2: Substance and articles which have projection hazard but not a maximum explosion hazard;
Division 1.3: Substance and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard;
Division 1.4: Substance and articles which present not significant hazards;
Division 1.5: Substance and articles which are very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard;
Division 1.6: Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard
Class 2: Gases, Compressed, Liquefied or Dissolved under pressure; e. g.- Argon (Ar), Nitrogen (N2)
Class 2.1: Flammable Gases;
Class 2.2: Non-flammable, Non-toxic Gases;
Class 2.2: Toxic Gases
Class 3: Flammable Liquids
Class 4: Flammable Solids, Substances liable tospontaneous combustion, substances which, in contact with water emit flammable gases
Class 4.1: Flammable Solids, Self reactive substances and desensitised explosives; E.g. Zinc Dust, Paint;
Class 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion; Eg. Iron and Steel Phosphorus;
Class 4.3: Substances which in contact with water, emit flammable gases; Eg. Sodium (Na), Potasium (K)
Class 5: Oxidising Substances and Organic Peroxides
Class 5.1: Oxidizing Substances, Eg: Potassium Chlorinate, Sodium Peroxide;
Class 5.2: Organic Peroxide, Eg: Peroxyacetic Acid
Class 6: Toxic and Infectious Substances
Class 6.1: Toxic Substances, Eg: Tear Gas, Prussic Acid;
Class 6.2: infectious Substances, Eg: Biological Substances
Class 7: Radioactive Materials, Eg: Thorium, Cobalt and even Iron
Class 8: Corrosive Substances; Eg: Sulphuric Acid. Caustic Soda
Class 9: Miscellaneous Dangerous Substances and Articles; Eg: Dry Ice, Ammonium Nitrate Fertilisers
Packaging of Dangerous Goods
Packaging including Intermediate bulk containers and large packaging is to be of good quality and capable of withstanding shocks normally encountered during transportation.
The packaging should be constructed and closed so as to prevent loss of content by vibration or by change in temperature, humidity or pressure during transportation.
No dangerous residue shall adhere outside of packages
The packaging part which are in direct contact with Dangerous Goods should not be weakened, react or catalysis a reaction.
Packaging should be tested for vibration, drop test, etc. Outer packaging material should not produce heat while transport.
An ullage to be kept sufficient to allow for expansion at temperatures during transportation.
Dangerous Goods and other substances shall not be packed together as they may react.
Cushioning and absorbent material should be inert and suitable to the nature of the content.
Packages containing dangerous cargo which evolve flammable, toxic, corrosive gases or vapours or become explosive if allowed to dry or which may react dangerously with the atmosphere should be hermetically sealed (Vapour tight closure)
Marking, Labelling and Placarding of Dangerous Goods
Labels has to be 100 x 100 mm in size and fixed to individual packages.
Placards will show same information i.e. Class Number, and Dangerous Properties but are larger in size 250 x 250 mm and fixed to cargo transport unit.
The proper Shipping Name and the corresponding UN Number shall be marked on each package.
These marking, labels and placards shall be readily visible, on a background of a contrasting colours and on the external surface of the package.
Labels should be placed placed near the markings, with subsiding risk labels. Information provided on label, markings and placards should be still identifiable if immersed in sea for three months.
Salvage packaging shall be marked by word SALVAGE (Salvage means defective packaging)
Large packaging should be marked on two opposing sides and placards pasted on CTU on four sides.
Package containing marine pollutants shall be marked with environmentally hazardous substance mark.
Class 7 packages shall be marked with the name of the Consigner or Consignee or both and if over 50 kg shall also be durably and legibly marked with the Gross Mass.
A package containing Dangerous Goods of a low degree of danger may be exempted from labelling requirements and will be indicated in the Dangerous Goods list.
Documents required as per IMDG Code
Document of Compliance (DOC);
Dangerous Goods Manifest
These documents should be retained on board.
Shipper of a Dangerous material required to prepare a shipping document that should be as per IMDG Code. Manifest should contain at least:
Number and kind of packages Proper Shipping Name;
Dangerous Goods Net Mass;
Port of loading;
Port of Discharge;
MFAG Table Number
Stowage means proper placement of dangerous goods on board the ship to ensure safety and environmental protection during transport.
Stowage on deck means on weather deck and stowage under deck means, not on the weather deck.
Closed transport unit means fully enclosed unit that enclosed contents by permanent structures and can be secured to ship structure and is serviceable.
Dangerous Goods of Class 1, except for Division 1.4 shall be stowed on cargo ship and passenger ship in one of the five stowage categories, which specify where and how the Dangerous Goods can be stowed. 12 m away from living quarters, LSA and Public access areas, B/8 or 2.4 m away from the ship-side which even is greater and 6 meters away from sources of ignition.
Dangerous Goods of Class 2-9 shall be stowed in cargo and passenger ships in one of the five stowage categories (A to E) which specifies where cargo can be stowed.
Marine Pollutants should preferably be stowed under deck but if required to be stowed on deck then they should be stowed inboard in sheltered areas on well protected decks.
Types of Segregation
1. Away from:
Effective segregation is required but may be carried in the same compartment or deck provided minimum horizontal separation of three meters projected vertically is maintained.
2. Separated from:
Can be carried in the same compartment if the intervening deck is resistant of fire and liquids, otherwise separate holds. On deck, horizontal separation of at least six meters.
3. Separated by a complete compartment or hold from
These must be either a vertical or longitudinal separation by a complete hold or compartment and two bulkheads or decks resistant to fire and liquids. On deck, 12 meters horizontal separation even if the package is stowed below deck.
4. Separated Longitudinally by an intervening complete compartment or hold from
A vertically separation is not allowed. The packagers must be horizontally separated by a complete compartment. On Deck, a 24 meters Horizontal separation and between deck packages and and under deck packages, 24 m + an intervening compartment.
Precautions while loading Dangerous Goods
General inspection of hold which include structural damage and defects Refer to the IMDG Code and find the particulars of cargo to be loaded with regards to hazards, compatibility, stowage and segregation.
Appropriate International Code Signals by day and by night is to be posted.
No Bunkering operation to be done during loading or discharging.
Wireless transmission should not be done of voltage exceeding 50v
Radars should not be operated during loading or discharging of Dangerous Cargo.
Forklift should not be used in vicinity of Dangerous Goods Defective packages should not be accepted.
Port regulations are to be complied with.
Precautions while loading Explosives
Explosives must be stowed in magazines, tht is a wood or wooden compartment. No electric cable should pass through the magazine. If not possible, them cable should be coated by approved, sealed, non-combustible barrier. Explosives are unstable when wet, should be stowed in dry, cool, well ventilated space. Masts must be fitted with an efficient lightening conductor, as lighting presents a grave danger.
Dangerous Goods List
The Dangerous Goods List is contained in Chp 3.2 in Volume 2 of IMDG Code. This list contains the data from each dangerous substances which can be transported by the sea. Information contained in the Dangerous goods list of IMDG Code is as follows:
Proper shipping name;
Class or division;
Limited and excepted;
IBC Portable tanks and bulk containers;
Stowage and handling;
Properties and observations
This list contains 18 columns. Which are:
Column 1 – UN Number Contains the United Nations Number assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN List).
Column 2 – Proper Shipping Name (PSN) Contains the Proper Shipping Names in upper case characters which may have to be followed by additional descriptive text in lower-case characters.
Column 3 – Class or Division Contains the class and, in the case of class 1, the division and compatibility group.
Column 4 – Subsidiary Risk(s) Contains the class number(s) of any subsidiary risk(s). This column also identifies dangerous goods as a marine pollutant or a severe marine pollutant as follows: P Marine pollutant PP Severe marine pollutant ? Marine pollutant only when containing 10% or more substance(s) identified with ‘P’ or 1% or more substance(s) identified with ‘PP’ in this column or in the Index.
Column 5 – Packing Group Contains the packing group number (i.e. I, II or III) where assigned to the substance or article. Column 6 – Special Provisions Contains a number referring to any special provision(s) indicated in chapter 3.3.
Column 7 – Limited Quantities Provides the maximum quantity per inner packaging.
Column 8 – Packing Instructions Contains packing instructions for the transport of substances and articles.
Column 9 – Special Packing Provisions Contains special packing provisions.
Column 10 – IBC Packing Instructions Contains IBC instructions which indicate the type of IBC that can be used for the transport. A code including the letters ‘IBC’ refers to packing instructions for the use of IBCs described in chapter 6.5.
Column 11 – IBC Special Provisions Refers to special packing provisions applicable to the use of packing instructions bearing the code ‘IBC’ in 184.108.40.206.
Column 12 – IMO Tank Instructions This column only applies to IMO portable tanks and road tank vehicles.
Column 13 – UN Tank and Bulk Container Instructions Contains T codes (see 220.127.116.11.6) applicable to the transport of dangerous goods in portable tanks and road tank vehicles.
Column 14 – Tank Special Provisions Contains TP notes (see 18.104.22.168) applicable to the transport of dangerous goods in portable tanks and road road tank vehicles. The TP notes specified in this column apply to the portable tanks specified in both columns 12 and 13.
Column 15 – EmS Refers to the relevant emergency schedules for FIRE and SPILLAGE in ‘The EmS Guide – Emergency Response Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods’.
Column 16 – Stowage and Segregation Contains the stowage and segregation provisions as prescribed in part 7.
Column 17 – Properties and Observations Contains properties and observations on the dangerous goods listed.
Column 18 – UN Number Contains the United Nations Number assigned to a dangerous good by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN List).
The autopilot is equipment used to maintain the ship’s set course electronically and electrically for a long period of time when alteration of course is not required. The Auto Pilot is used when a ship has to steer a set course for a long time without alteration.
This is achieved by comparing the course to steer with the ship’s heading obtained by gyro or magnetic compasses. means, Set Course is 020° T Gyro Course is 025° T 5° Error to stbd So Auto pilot will give helm to Port to make course steady.
Any difference between the two will cause an error signal voltage to be created and accordingly correcting helm will be applied to the rudder to bring the ship back to the set course.
This is intended to remove the need for the operator to assess the correct control settings.
In effect the autopilot ‘learns’ the vessel’s handling characteristics in calm weather and then, when the weather deteriorate, can distinguish between those errors in heading due to the weather and those due to vessel’s normal handling characteristics. Any deviaition from the set course is controlled Automatically and Electronically.
SOLAS Requirement for Auto Pilot
As required by SOLAS Chp V/ Reg 22.214.171.124 “All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph 2.7 with the exception of paragraph 2.7.2, have a heading or track control system, or other means, to automatically control and keep to a heading and/or straight track.”
Advantages of Autopilot
Increase the average speed as the ship does not follow zig-zag across the track;
It also ensures that the ship’s steering gear operates at minimum;
An Autopilot does not replace the duty of Helmsman, but reduce the work load on Bridge Team.
Limitations of Autopilot
Auto pilot should not be used under following circumstances:
In rough weather;
During large alterations of courses;
At slow speeds;
In heavy traffic areas;
In conditions of reduced visibility;
While manoeuvring the vessel;
In narrow channels and confined waters;
In shallow waters.
Working of Auto Pilot
The course to be steered by using Autopilot is selected by course selector knob while present heading of the ship is indicated on the Gyro or Magnetic Compass.
The output from the Gyro or Magnetic Compass is coupled or mixed to the Comparator in the Control Unit along with the input signal from manual course setting control.
Any difference between the two signals cause an error signal whose magnitude or amount is proportional to the difference between the two signal and hence the Comparator is also known as Proportional Control.
In addition to the Comparator, the Control Unit also contains or consist of Integrators and Derivator which analyses the signal from Gyro or Magnetic Compass and signal from course selector.
Assuming Amplifier is used to obtain a resultant error signal from these three controls: Integrator, Comparator, and Derivator.
This error signal is fed to the error amplifier, which also gets feedback from Rudder, consist of Rudder position and its movement.
The output of error amplifier is fed via Telemotor to the steering gear unit and it results into turn the rudder.
The effect on steering when only proportional control is applied causes. The rudder to move by an amount proportional to the off-course error from the course to steer and the shio will oscillate on either side of the required line. Output of the controller is proportional to the offcourse error from the course to steer (deviation). Controller Output = constant (Kp) x Deviation
In Derivative Control the rudder is shifted by an amount proportional to the Rate of Change of ships deviation from the course.
It will work on the rate of change of course and give proportional helm and follow parallel path to course to steer track. An ideal combination of both proportional and derivative control produces a more satisfactory return to course.
Output of the controller is proportional to the rate of change of error ( deviation ).
Controller Output = Constant (Kp) x change of error / time
There are some errors due to design parameters of the ship like:
Shape of the ship’s hull;
Data signals are produced by continuously sensing Heading Error over a period of time and applying an appropriate degree of permanent helm os used for this purpose.
The Rudder used to correct the course will now be permanent helm instead of actual midship, i.e. permanent helm now acts as midship.
Output of the controller is proportional to the summation of all instantaneous values of error ( deviation ) for as long as error persists.
The combined action of proportional integral and derivative control is called PID Control.
PID Control comes into use when the ship deviates from the set course.
Eg: Initial Course to steer- 090°, then changes to 093°. When ship’s set course is changed. Initial course was 090°, now we have to steer 100°
In Control Unit:
The proportional control unit determines the rudder angle to be used.
The Derivative Control takes care of the counter helm used The Integral Control considers the effects of ship’s parameters In addition, there is Filter System for action of wind and waves.
Output signal is proportional to the deviation, persists as long as deviation persists and also depends on rate of change of deviation i.e. Proportional + Integral + Derivative
Autopilot Control Panel
Weather Setting Control: When steering in heavy weather with wind and sea at an angle to the vessel’s heading, there is a tendency for the vessel’s head to be turned in a particular direction. The effect of this can be offset by maintaining some permanent value of the rudder angle; this angle is set using ‘weather helm’ after a period of trial and error.
Synchronization Control: This control temporarily disconnects gyro repeater from the main gyro for sync of heading. Required for sync and when gyro switched off and restarted.
Rudder Control: This is a proportional controller which transmits a signal which is proportional to the course error Controller Output = Constant (Kp) x Deviation
The ratio can be changed by settings ( i.e. the ratio between instantaneous heading error and rudder command)
Also called Rudder Multiplier
Control knob alters the ratio of output. Higher setting — Larger Rudder Angle (Results in overcorrecting – overshooting) Lower setting – Less rudder angle (Long time to return to Set Co– Sluggish) Therefore optimum setting required.
Counter-rudder Control: This is Derivative control.
The purpose is to apply a relatively greater amount of helm at the beginning of a course alteration to get the ship turning. Once the ship is turning, just enough helm is applied in order to keep her coming around.
When a new heading is approached, the opposite helm is applied to stop the swing. As the ship settles on a new heading and the yaw rate disappears, the helm is removed.
Produces an output when the course of the vessel is changing.
Depends on the rate of change of course: Controller Output = constant (KD) x change of Error/Time. whereas, KD– Counter rudder time constant (Calibration is done at sea trial to set KD)
Determines the amount of Counter Rudder to steady the ship on a set course. Keeps overshoot to a minimum.
Greater the ship’s inertia, the greater the setting required. If the ship has good dynamic stability, relatively small settings of the counter-rudder will be sufficient. If the ship is unstable, higher settings will be required.
Depends on the ship’s characteristics, loaded/ballast conditions, and rate of turn.
A too high setting will bring the ship to set Co slowly and a too low setting allows overshoot.
As counter rudder settings increase, counter rudder increases.
Permanent Helm or Constant Helm: This is an integral controller.
In NFU this control is out of action.
When a ship has a known imbalance to one side, requiring a certain amount of bias helm (e.g. TT of propeller) manual setting of the approximate bias speed up the effect of the “Automatic Permanent Helm” Calculator, because it started off nearer to its target.
Whether the control setting is estimated correctly or left at zero has no effect on the final steering accuracy but only in the time, it takes to reach this heading accuracy.
If not used as described above, the permanent helm should be left at ZERO and the automatic permanent helm will function normally.
Produces output as long a course error persists.
Used when beam winds; the couple formed causing the ship to turn into the wind.
Rudder position required to counteract is the permanent helm.
Continuous control calibrated from 20 (P) to 20 (S).
It gives an alarm if the ship deviates from set course by a predetermined limit. The setting depends on Weather conditions, open/coastal waters.
Usually, an Off Course Alarm is fitted on the Autopilot. This can be set for the required amount of degrees. So that if at any time the difference between the actual course and the Autopilot set course is more than the preset degrees, an alarm will warn the officer.
There is, however, one limitation that should be noted. In case, the gyrocompass itself begins to wander the Autopilot well steer so as to follow the wandering compass and the Off Course Alarm will not sound. It does not ring unless the difference between the course setting and the gyro heading is more than the preset limit.
Speed Control: Usually from log and manual if log fails
Rudder Limit: Purpose is to prevent a maneuver more radical than is compatible with:
Comfort on the ship;
Safety of ship;
Rudder angle greater than 15 to 20 deg does not improve course alteration but result in excessive speed loss.
This control limits the number of degrees of the helm that can be applied by an auto-pilot computer in any mode.
Limits are: 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees
Synchronization Control: This control temporarily disconnects gyro repeater from the main gyro for sync of heading. Required for sync and when gyro switched off and restarted. Auto-pilot/ Follow-up/ Non-follow up: For choosing steering mode
Dimmer: For the illumination of the panel
Yaw Control: This setting depends on wind and weather conditions and their effect on the course keeping ability of the ship. In a bad weather Yaw Control should be set at high and calm weather this should be set low. If Yaw Control is not set properly, the steering gear will overwork & there will be an excessive load on the system.
Course Selector Knob: For setting the course to be steered.
Auto-pilot/ Follow-up/ Non-follow up: For choosing steering mode
Regularly check for following:
The Gyro repeater is synchronised with the master repeater.
The setting of the controls are optimum and adjust if required, for:
try out hand steering and emergency steering once every watch
In close- quarter situation, do not use Auto pilot;
Maintenance should be carried out as per manual;
Auto-pilot is a course keeper and cannot replace Helmsman. It should not be used when in:
At slow speed;
While carrying out a large alteration of course;
In poor visibility
Changing over from Hand Steering to Auto Steering
Before changing over from hand steering to auto steering, the settings on the auto pilot panel must be adjusted for weather and traffic conditions. The vessel must be made steady on the course on which she has to be set on auto steering.
Changing over to Emergency Steering System
When the steering panel gives an alarm, it must be read carefully to see as to what has gone out of order, operation must be changed-over to the other/ alternative steering gear/ motor or transmission system/ tele-motor, engine room must be informed immediately. If the Auto-pilot gives an alarm or the off-course alarm goes off, adjust the settings on the Auto-pilot panel accordingly.
If the Auto-pilot fails, change-over to hand steering.
If the Follow-up system doesn’t work (the feedback leg of the steering gears doesn’t function properly), change-over to Non-Follow-Up mode.
If the steering transmission systems or tele-motors stop working, emergency steering has to be performed by trick-wheel arrangement or solenoids after bringing the rudder mid-ships.
Further, if the steering hydraulic or electric motors also stop working, rudder will have to turned by some mechanical arrangement like chains and blocks, this is not possible in case of large rudders (large ships). As the last resort, Jury rudder is used, which means some arrangement/ structural changes, which over-side work as an alternative rudder arrangement e.g. wooden planks on the stern turned/ rotated like a rudder.
Changing over (handing over/ taking over) of a watch between the OOWs whether at sea or at anchor is done in compliance with the ISM checklists onboard which, in general, include the following :
Use of the Auto Pilot
The master shall ensure that an automatic pilot, where fitted, shall not be used in area of high traffic density, in conditions of restricted visibility nor in any other hazardous navigational situation unless it is possible to establish manual control of the ship’s steering within 30 seconds.
Before entering any area of high traffic density, and whenever visibility is likely to become restricted or some other hazardous navigational situation is likely to arise, the master shall arrange, where practicable, for the officer of the watch to have available without delay the services of a qualified helmsman who shall be ready at all times to take over the manual steering.
The change-over form automatic to manual steering and vice versa shall be made by, or under the supervision of, the officer of the watch, or, if there is no such officer, the master.
The master shall ensure that the manual steering gear is tested
after continuous use of the automatic pilot for 24 hours and
before entering any areas where navigation demands special caution.
Operations of Steering Gear: In areas where navigation demands special caution, the master shall ensure that the ship shall have more than one steering gear power unit in operation when such units are available and capable of simultaneous operation.
Within limits related to the ships’s manoeuvrability the heading control system, in conjunction with its source of heading information, should enable a ship to keep a preset heading with minimum operation of the ship’s steering gear.
A heading control system may work together with a track control system adjusting its heading for drift.
A tum rate control for performing turns may be provided.
Adaption to steering characteristics and environmental conditions
The heading control system should be capable of adapting manually or automatically to different steering characteristics of the ship under various speed, weather and loading conditions, and provide reliable operation under prevailing environment and normal operational conditions.
The heading control system should be able to perform turns, within the turning capability of the ship, based either on a preset turning radius or a preset rate of tum.
Rudder Angle Limitation
Means should be incorporated in the equipment to enable rudder angle limitation in the automatic mode. Means should also be available to indicate when the angle of limitation has been commanded or reached. When other means of directional control are used the requirements of this section should appropriately apply.
Means should be incorporated to prevent unnecessary activation of the rudder due to normal yaw motion.
Any alteration of the preset heading should not be possible without intended action of the ship’s personnel.
Limiting of Overshoot
The heading control system should change to a preset heading without significant overshoot.
Change over from Automatic to Manual Steering and vice-versa
Change-over from automatic to manual steering and vice-versa should be possible at any position of the rudder and should be effected by one manual control within 3 seconds.
Change-over from automatic to manual steering should be possible under any conditions including any failure in the automatic control system.
When changing over from manual to automatic steering the heading control system shall take over the actual heading as the preset heading.
There should be a single change-over control which should be located in such a position that it is easily accessible to the officer of the watch.
Adequate indication should be provided to show which method of steering is in operation.
Change-over from Track Control to Heading Cpontrol
If the heading control system works as part of a track control system, then when switching from track control to heading control, the actual heading should be taken as the preset heading.
Any switching back to track control shall not be possible without intended action of the ship’s personnel.
Alarms and Signalling Facilities
Failure or reduction in power
An alarm both audible with mute function and visual should be provided in order to indicate failure or a reduction in the power supply to the heading control system or heading monitor, which would affect the safe operation of the equipment.
An off-heading alarm, both audible with mute function and visual should be provided when the actual heading deviates from the preset heading beyond a preset limit.
If the ship is required to carry two independent compasses, a heading monitor should be provided to monitor the actual heading information by independent heading sources. The heading monitor is not required to be an integrated part of the heading control system.
An alarm both audible with mute function and visual should be provided when the heading information in use deviates from the second heading source beyond a preset limit.
Indication of Heading Source
A clear indication of the actual heading source should be provided.
The heading control system should provide an indication when any input from external sensors used for control is absent.
The heading control system should also repeat any alarm on the status messages concerning the quality of the input data from its external sensors when they are used for control.
The number of operational controls should be such that easy and safe operation can be achieved. The controls should be designed to preclude inadvertent operation.
Unless features for automatic adjustment are incorporated in the installation, the heading control system should be provided with adequate controls to adjust to effects due to weather and the ship’s steering performance.
The heading control system should be designed in such a way as to ensure altering the pre-set heading to starboard by turning the heading setting control clockwise or tilting it to the right-hand side. Normal alterations of heading should be possible by one adjustment only of the preset heading control.
Where remote control stations are provided, facilities for the delegation of control to the remote station and unconditional return of control should be incorporated in the master station.
Except for the preset heading setting control, the actuation of any other control should not significantly affect the heading of the ship.
Additional controls at remote positions should comply with the provisions of this performance standard.
The heading control system should be connected to a suitable source of heading information.
The heading control system should be connected to a suitable source of speed information when it is used in a turning radius mode or when any control parameters are automatically adapted to speed.
If a heading control system is capable of digital serial communication with the ship’s navigation system then the interface facilities should comply with the relevant international marine interface standards.”
Insert your INDOS number and use the same password as for Log-in
Click the profile photo on the top bar.
You will find your present photograph, which is available on your INDOS Profile. If there is no photograph found, please get your photograph uploaded on your profile before appearing for the Exit Exam.
If the photograph is found, allow web-cam on your Computer to take your three photographs and put in the three empty boxes to match your present face profile with an old uploaded photograph. If the photograph is not getting uploaded, get your photograph changed and then appear for the exam using the procedure detailed later in this SOP. This is a mandatory step and may be carried out anytime during the course.
After receiving the SMS/E-mail from the MTI, the Candidate will immediately start the Exit Exam. The steps are given in the following steps:
Note: Prior to taking the examination ensure to close all other windows on your computer. It is important to open Task Manager on your Computer and manually close all screen sharing applications. If you do not follow this step you will not be able to give the exam.
The Candidate profile shall be displayed as per DGS e-Governance
Complete Pre-Exam Procedures:
First, Student need to Download the “DGS Secure Software.exe” file
Go to the file Downloaded folder and Double Click or Run the file.
In the popup, Click “More Info” and click “Run Anyway” button
In the popup, Enter the INDOs number and press “Enter” key
Now, open the “Browser” and click the “Refresh” button
After refreshing the page, Course Details shall be displayed
Now, Candidate can Select the Course and Click the “Take Test” button
Exam Instructions shall be displayed in a popup window Please note that closing or navigating away from the exam window during the examination session and or opening any other window etc. will, amongst others constitute the use of UNFAIR MEANS.
Click the “Proceed Test” button to continue
Now, Candidate can Click the “Allow” button to allow the Webcam Access
Exam Instructions and Webcam Instructions shall be displayed in the popup window
Click the “Photo” button to take the photo for Validation.
Upon Successful verification of Photo, Candidate will get the Green color button
Click the “Proceed Exam” button to Commence the Exam
The candidate will always look into the Screen to avoid the Exam Termination
Candidate Photo will be Taken Multiple Time Automatically, If found Swap of Persons / Photo Mismatch will lead to Termination of Exam
Malpractices such as Browsing Google, Screen Sharing, etc., will lead to Termination of Exam
Page Back / Refreshing the Page also will lead to Termination of Exam
Last 5 Minutes – Time Indication (Blinking) will be displayed
Instructions during examination
During the exam, the candidate cannot review his previous answered question and should not try to go back screen. After answering a question, he should click on the next question until he comes to the last question.
At last question, the candidate will get the submit button; Click the “Submit Test” button to view Exam Result. Please note again that the Candidate cannot review their answered question and should not attempt to go back-screen.
Once Exam is Completed, the result will be automatically sent to DGS Server
After the Exam, the Candidate will contact their respective MTI’s for the Certification Process.
Necessary Security Aspects
For Exit examination, the Candidate will be allowed to appear online examination for which necessary security aspects have been taken care of. Use of any unlawful and unfair practices adopted by the Candidate e.g. moving away from the computer during the examination or surfing another site etc. will disqualify him/her from the examination process. Exit exam software has the following features to prevent malpractices:
Online Photo validation (Face Recognition)
AI-based automatic Photo Verification during Entire Exam
Multi-face deduction and stopping the exam automatically.
Candidate cannot Minimize or Browse any other window.
Candidate cannot copy or paste the question bank and Search Online (Like Google).
Candidate cannot use Team Viewer, Zoom, Any Desk, or any other Screen Sharing.
Timer Clock with finishing Red Indication (Last 5 Minutes).
In case of Internet failure 5 minutes, Session out facility provided.
Preparation for smooth conduct of examination
MTI shall ensure that following system requirements are available with the Candidate for smooth conduct of Exit Examination:
Operating System – Windows 7/8/10 or Higher (Preferred 64 bit); IP Camera / Web Camera minimum Resolution 640 X 480 px (with Audio Mic Option)
The Exit Examination system continually matches a candidate profile with the photograph in his seafarer profile. Therefore, it is important that a recent photograph showing the candidate full front view is there on his profile. The candidate is required to verify the same on his seafarer profile. In case a Candidate finds either his photograph is not uploaded and require a change, he can follow the following procedure:
The MTI shall verify the photograph/signature of the Candidate against the passport and send change request by email to [email protected] along with a copy of passport and photograph which the Candidate intends to upload.
Upon satisfaction, the Exit Exam cell shall grant permission to change the photograph. Such permission for change in a photograph shall be provisional and subject to verification at a later stage. The new photograph/signature should be as per the specified requirements.
Factors affect the accuracy of GPS positions (GPS Errors)
Changing atmospheric conditions change the speed of the GPS signals as they pass through the Earth’s atmosphere and this affects the time difference measurement and the fix will not be accurate. Each satellite transmits its message on two frequencies and hence a dual frequency receiver receives both the frequencies and correction is calculated and compensated within the receiver thus increasing the accuracy of the fix.
Effect is minimised when the satellite is directly overhead.
Becomes greater for satellites nearer the horizon. The receiver is designed to reject satellites with elevation less than 9.5°.
User Clock Error
If the user clock is not perfectly synchronised with the satellite clock, the range measurement will not be accurate. The range measurement along with the clock error is called pseudo range. This error can be eliminated within the receiver by obtaining pseudo range from three satellites and is done automatically within the receiver.
Satellite Clock Error
This error is caused due to the error in the satellite‟s clock w.r.t. GPS time. This is monitored by the ground based segments and any error in the satellites clock forms part of the 30 seconds navigational message.
The satellites are monitored and their paths are predicted by the ground based segment. However, between two consecutive monitoring of the same satellite, there may be minor drifts from their predicted paths resulting in small position inaccuracy.
The GDOP of a satellite determines the angle of cut which in turn governs the quality of the position obtained. Wider the angular separation between the satellites, better the accuracy of the fix. Or, conversely said, the lower the GDOP value, the greater the accuracy of the fix. The GDOP value is indicated on the display unit.
This error is caused by the satellite signals arriving at the ship‟s antenna both directly from the satellite and those that get reflected by some objects. Thus two signals are received simultaneously which will cause the distortion of signal from which range measurement is obtained. Siting the antenna at a suitable place can minimize this error.
This error is found when two transducers are used, one for transmission and the other one for reception. This error is calculated using the Pythagoras principle. This error becomes prominent whenever distance between two transducer is more than 2 mtrs, manual should be referred in order to use the table for corrections.
The echo may be reflected no. of times from the bottom of the sea bed, hence providing the multiple depth marks on paper.
Velocity of propagation in water
The velocity changes with temperature salinity & pressure.
The velocity of the acoustic wave assumed at the temperature of 16°C & Salinity of 3.4% is 1505 m/sec, but generally it is taken as 1500 m/sec for calculations.
As velocity is varying hence depth recorded will be erroneous. Depth indicated in Fresh water can be about 3% higher than the actual depth.
NP 139 (Echo Sounding Correction Tables) can be referred in order to obtain the corrections.
To compensate the error due to temperature variation, a component called “Thermistor” may be mounted near the transducer & change in velocity of the acoustic wave through water from the standard value due to the change in sea water temperature is accounted for.
Error due to pressure is not so significant.
Stylus Speed Error
The speed of the stylus is such that the time taken by the stylus to travel from top to bottom on chart is same as the time taken by sound waves to travel twice the range selected, but due to fluctuation in voltage supplied to stylus motor, will cause error in the recorded depth.
Cross Noise Error
If sensitivity of the amplifier is high, just after zero marking a narrow line along with the several irregular dots and dashes appear and this is called cross noise. The main reasons for the cross noise are aeration and picking up the transmitted pulse. If intensity of cross noise is high, it will completely mask the shallow water depths. This is controlled by swept gain control circuit.
When the sound wave is reflected from the reflected from the air bubbles, it will appear as dots, this is known as aeration.
Aeration can be due to pockets of bubble due to heavy weather.
Rudder hard over causing drastic alteration of course.
Pitching in light condition.
Whilst astern propulsion. (Switch over to forward transducer if available.)
Zero-Line Adjustment Error
If the zero is not adjusted properly, it will give error in reading.